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JWJ > Volume 33(2); 2015 > Article
Journal of Welding and Joining 2015 April;33(2) :23-31.
Published online April 30, 2015.
Optimization of arc brazing process parameters for exhaust system parts using box-behnken design of experiment
Yong Kim*, Pyeong-Won Park**, Ki-Young Park*, Jin-Chul Ryu***
*Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin 449-863, Korea
**Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Geoje 656-710, Korea
***HICO Co. Ltd., Asan 336-873, Korea
Correspondence: Yong Kim  Email:
  Published online April 30, 2015
Stainless steel is used in automobile muffler and exhaust systems. However, in comparison with other steelsit has a high thermal expansion rate and low thermal conductivity, and undergoes excessive thermal deformation after welding. To address this problem, we evaluated the use of arc brazing in place of welding for the processing of an exhaust system, and investigated the parameters that affect the joint characteristics. Muffler parts STS439 and hot-dipped Al coated steel were used as test specimens, and CuAl brazing wire was used as the filler metal for the cold metal transfer (CMT) welding machine, which is a low heat input arc welder. In addition, a Box-Behnken design of experiment was used, which is a response surface methodology. The main process parameters (current, speed, and torch angle) were used to determine the appropriate welding quality and the mechanical properties of the brazing part was evaluated at the optimal welding condition. The optimal processing condition for arc brazing was 135A current, 51cm/min speed and 74° torch angle. The process was applied to an actual exhaust system muffler and the prototype was validated by thermal fatigue, thermal shock, and endurance limit tests.
Keywords: Arc brazing process | Muffler | Design of Experiment | Box-Behnken | Composite desirability
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